The direct and indirect impacts of resource extraction activities are an increasingly important planning and management challenge for organizations responsible for protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs). The development of subsurface resources in protected areas or OECMs can have significant implications for the ways in which such areas are established and their overall effectiveness in conserving biodiversity. In this article, we introduce a decision-support tool, developed through expert consensus and real-world application, that can be used to assist organizations to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation mechanisms (laws, regulations, and associated policies) and other management tools from potential subsurface resource extraction activities. The tool provides a novel and comprehensive method to determine whether a potential protected area or OECM is effective in managing all subsurface activities that may have an impact on biodiversity. While developed in Canada, the tool has universal applicability for conservation managers globally working to achieve standards of protection for biodiversity. We conclude by discussing the ways in which Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) can consider resource extraction rights and impacts in national efforts to effectively achieve the goals and targets of the recently adopted Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).

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